Molybdenum is a refractory metal that is very useful in many industrial processes and applications that would not be possible with many of the more common metals and alloys. Refractory metals and alloys are extraordinarily resistant to heat and have unique physical properties. Because of these properties Molybdenum is useful in many high temperature applications where high melting points are required. Molybdenum also exhibits good strength at elevated temperatures making moly useful in furnace, aerospace, and similar applications. And Molybdenum's good thermal and electrical conductivity and low coefficient of expansion make it a useful metal in electronic/electrical and glass-to-metal sealing applications. Molybdenum also has nuclear energy applications, and is employed as a catalyst in the petroleum refining industry. Molybdenum is also an essential trace element in plant nutrition, and Molybdenum sulfide is useful as a lubricant, especially at high temperatures where oils would decompose.